Labyrinth <p><em>Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics</em> is published since 1999 by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Axiological Research / Institut für Axiologische Forschungen</a> (Vienna). From 1999 till 2002 it was an on-line journal, thereafter it was published in printed volumes. It is actually both, a <em>printed academic journal</em>, available for purchase, and an electronic <em>open access journal</em>. After re-formatting, all past issues will be fully availble in the archives.</p> <p>As a nonpartisan philosophical and interdisciplinary journal <em>Labyrinth</em> is engaged in publication of high quality peer-reviewed academic articles, critical essays, interviews and book reviews. Although it is focused on philosophy and on axiology, i.e. on the philosophy and theory of values and their sociocultural contexts, it is also open to related issues in all fields of the humanities and the social sciences with a special emphasis on critical thinking, social controversies and conflict resolution, interfaith dialogue, intercultural and cross-cultural communication, gender studies and managing diversity. </p> <p>Individuals may buy the printed edition at <a title="amazon" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Amazon</a> and many other (online) bookstores. Libraries may use the right of 30% reduced rate by contacting our partner <a title="KNV" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">KNV</a>.</p> <p>NB. In november 2021 the Journal was successfully upgraded from OJS to OJS Within this major upgrade the layout was changed and some new functions added. </p> Axia Academic Publishers en-US Labyrinth 2410-4817 <p>After acceptation of the paper, the author has to sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement granting to <em>Labyrinth</em> and Axia Academic Publishers the exclusive copyrights for the online and printed editions, and to deal with reprint requests from third parties. On special occasions, articles and studies published in <em>Labyrinth</em> may be republished in textbooks or collective works of Axia Academic Publishers as well as translated and published in other languages. By submitting a paper to <em>Labyrinth</em>, you implicitely agree with these conditions. </p> <p> </p> "Nothing, Nothing, Nothing": Dostoevsky and Existentialism <p><em>The paper attempts to situate the work of Fyodor Dostoevsky in the tradition of Russian existentialism, and to indicate his influence on the subsequent development of existentialism in its ontological or ethical guise. In fact, Dostoevsky may be seen as the originator of a tradition which will later on influence and be taken up, via Nietzsche and Shestov, by the figures like Emanuel Levinas, Albert Camus or Maurice Blanchot, all explicitly concerned with existentialist questions of debt, guilt or suicide (Kirilov). Dostoevsky's writings are also interpreted in relation to Russian nationalism, and the sense of Russian Messianic election, which at the end of Crime and Punishment coalesce in another destination for Raskolnikov, launching him towards a Messianic future prior to the Abrahamic time and monotheistic sacrificiality. The end of Crime and Punishment imagines another existence for Raskolnikov, before the religious history, or the history tout court, has taken place or time. That time space is akin to something that Jacques Derrida formulated as an advent of an event to-come, a-venir. Dostoevsky is thus, in our interpretation, both a progenitor of the important strains of existentialism, but also a writer returning his hero's existence to an advent of a completely other, time before time, yet to come.</em></p> Dragan Kujundžić Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 20 38 10.25180/lj.v23i1.253 The Compatibility between the Religious and the Nihilistic Currents in Dostoevsky’s World <p><em>The goal of this essay is to show the compatibility between two currents in Dostoevsky's world, namely, the religious and the nihilistic. Based on Nietzsche's theory of nihilism and Deleuze's interpretation of Nietzsche, I introduce a dynamic model – reactive nihilism – a destructive force that annihilates fading values to clear the way for the advent of a new value. Through the textual analysis, primarily focusing on the religious dimension presented by saintly characters and biblical intertextuality in The Brothers Karamazov, this essay argues that Dostoevsky's two trends do not conflict at all, but express in a common dynamic model, that is reactive nihilism.</em></p> Haozhan Sun Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 39 58 10.25180/lj.v23i1.254 God, Evil, Freedom. Reception and Interpretation of Dostoevsky in Luigi Pareyson and his Heirs <p><em>The essay aims to focus on reception and interpretation of Dostoevsky in the thought of Luigi Pareyson (1918-1991) and his heirs, who have developed a deep and original theoretical reading of Dostoevsky's work, able to bring out not only its ethical stance, but most of the essential aspects of his thought, and to investigate its current relevance. The reflection of Pareyson – who promoted the introduction of Dostoevsky's thought into the academic circles of Turin, being convinced that philosophy cannot avoid confronting the issues it explores – consists of three main moments: the experience of good and evil, the experience of freedom and the experience of God. Starting from consideration of Dostoevsky's characters as&nbsp;</em>ideas<em>, Pareyson proposes a new and coherent philosophical interpretation of his work, which can undoubtedly be compared to those of Ivanov, Berdjaev, Evdomikov, Šestov. His observations around the Legend of the Grand Inquisitor and the "refutation of Ivan" – which, according to him, constitute the most significant and theoretically prolific moments of Dostoevsky's production – seem unaffected by the flow of time and could still represent a valuable and indispensable contribution to the understanding not only of the great Russian author, but of human nature itself.</em></p> Alessandro Carrieri Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 59 71 10.25180/lj.v23i1.255 Dostoevsky's Poetics of Modern Freedom: Against Bakhtin's "Polyphonic" Moral Truth <p><em>In an influential treatise, Mikhail Bakhtin (1984) asserts that the aim of Dostoevsky's distinctive poetics is to advance a revolutionary, "polyphonic" model of moral truth. In this paper, I argue that while Bakhtin correctly identifies essential features of Dostoevsky's poetics, these features are better understood as oriented toward meeting the free modern individual's need to test ultimate moral ends and concomitant virtues in order to determine their truth. An&nbsp;</em><em>Aristotelian poetics intended to educate audiences only in&nbsp;</em>how to be virtuous<em>&nbsp;</em><em>to achieve moral ends that are given by tradition will have different essential features than will a modern poetics whose purpose is to help individuals determine&nbsp;</em>what the virtues are<em>. It is this latter purpose, I argue, that drives Dostoevsky to create the new stylistic devices&nbsp;</em><em>that Bakhtin observes in Dostoevsky's work, rather than the purpose of realizing a philosophically problematic "polyphonic" model of moral truth.</em></p> Ava Wright Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 72 85 10.25180/lj.v23i1.256 A Devil under the Guise of a Good Conscience <p><em>Buried within Fyodor Dostoevsky's works are glimpses of corrupt individuals who rise to the fore every now and then. Without these occasional revelations, not many would notice how diabolical an ordinary person really is. Although Dostoevsky does generalize that human nature can be quite vile, a character like the mysterious visitor from&nbsp;</em>The Brothers Karamazov<em>&nbsp;displays that nature without striving to be extraordinary as Dostoevsky's other prolific characters. Something troubling still lurks within this mundane type. Relying on moral dilemmas presented by ancient thinkers will help this project expose and elaborate on the unsavouriness behind the activities and dispositions of Dostoevsky's minute character. With the mysterious visitor as the prime focus, we discover how an individual distorts one's personal development and decent relations with other humane beings.</em></p> Robert Vuckovich Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 86 104 10.25180/lj.v23i1.257 Repression in the Existential Lives of Dostoevsky’s Poor People <p><em>This paper explores Sigmund Freud's concept of repression in the existential strife exhibited by two main characters, Makar Alexyevitch and Varvara Alexyevna, in Fyodor Dostoevsky's&nbsp;</em>Poor People<em>. To demonstrate this, I psychoanalyze of how they handle their repressed desires, emphasizing the necessity of Freud's main rule for this method: Openness. Dostoevsky's&nbsp;</em>Poor People<em>&nbsp;</em><em>presents an existential crisis handled through openness and mishandled when an individual represses one's desires. In delving into Dostoevsky's first novel, I demonstrate a link between the existential and psychological, wherein individuals strive to overcome themselves. Surprisingly, this link has a come a common influence between Dostoevsky and Freud: Immanuel Kant. I briefly discuss this shared similarity to show the basic idea of an "existential middle" derived from a Freudian psychoanalysis of Dostoevsky's&nbsp;</em>Poor People<em>.</em></p> Jesús Ramirez Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 105 121 10.25180/lj.v23i1.258 Holy Saturday Between the Sublime and Beautiful: Fantastic Realism in Kristeva and Desmond's Dostoevskian Ideal <div> <p><em>This article examines Dostoevsky's "fantastic realism," which challenges the explanation of rationalism or empiricism in the need for determinate categories fixed in nature. His use of paintings by Hans Holbein, Claude Lorrain, and Raphael in terms of the sublime and beautiful exemplify an understanding of Holy Saturday and its status between death and resurrection. Julia Kristeva's reading of Dostoevsky's melancholy as exemplifying a religious ideal and William Desmond's metaxological philosophy allows us to propose a terminology that rhymes with Dostoevskian between-ness, a conclusion that does not resolve the space between the beautiful and the sublime but remains open to the confessional enigmatic liminality that is Holy Saturday.</em></p> </div> Michael Deckard Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 122 139 10.25180/lj.v23i1.259 Revisiting Gadamer's Conception of Works of Art <p><em>In contrast to Kant's aesthetic, Gadamer proposes a fundamentally different way of understanding our experiences of art. One that is not restricted by the dichotomy between subjectivity and objectivity: A work of art is not simply an object created by an artist, but a "world" in which all the "players" participate. This conception of art is inspired by the performing arts; but how much is it relevant to other forms of art? Gadamer never explored this question fully. It is of interest, therefore, to expand the analysis of Gadamer on two fronts: first, new forms of art such as installations and video games; second, artistic practices in East Asia, notably, the Japanese art of&nbsp;</em>kintsugi&nbsp;<em>and Chinese art of seals (</em>zhāng<em>). The analysis of these forms of art not only helps broaden the scope of Gadamer's theory, but shows also that the insights found in his works are more relevant than ever.</em></p> Man Chun Szeto Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 140 165 10.25180/lj.v23i1.260 Industrial Modernism and the Hegelian Dialectic in Winslow Homer <p><em>This paper looks at the themes of nature, humanity, and military and industrial development in the nineteenth century American painter Winslow Homer through the lens of the Hegelian theory of art. Robert Pippin's&nbsp;</em>After the Beautiful<em>&nbsp;</em>(2015)<em>&nbsp;has recently put the Hegelian framework to very fruitful use in understanding pictorial modernism. This study of Homer follows a similar approach but argues that Homer's canvases represent a development in the modern spirt which, in many ways, goes beyond the canvases of Manet – a very tight modernist contemporary of Homer's. Homer communicates a presentment of the immense and, in certain profound respects, horrifying power of humanity's growing industrialization. I trace the development of this idea over the course of his career, from this early Civil War canvases to his final seascapes and argue that an understanding of Homer's work is important for understanding the modern spirit of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.</em></p> Trevor Griffith Copyright (c) 2021 Labyrinth: An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 23 1 166 183 10.25180/lj.v23i1.261